The Chilli pepper, is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae.
It's native to the Americas which place chillies among the oldest cultivated crops, but chillies were cultivated around the world after Indigenous people shared them with travelers.
The most recent research shows that chilli peppers were cultivated more than 6000 years ago in Mexico by the Indians of the area of Mexco and Peru.
Christopher Columbus was one of the first Europeans to encounter them (in the Caribbean), and called them "peppers" because they, like black and white pepper of the Piper genus known in Europe, have a spicy hot taste unlike other foodstuffs.
Upon their introduction into Europe, the chilli was an instant success, the plant is well acclimated in Mediterranean and south of the continent. A subtitution of other far more expensive spices such as cinnamon, nutmeg.
The five domesticated species of chili peppers:
- Capsicum annuum: includes many common varieties such as bell peppers, Italian, Cayenne, Jalapeños, chiltepin, and all forms of New Mexico chile. In the absence of winter frosts can survive several seasons and grow into a large perennial shrub, the stem is densely branched and up to 80cm tall.
- Capsicum frutescens: includes Malagueta, Tabasco and Thai peppers, Piri Piri, and Malawian Kambuzi and mainly grown for Tabasco. The fruit is initiated from green and will ripen to a red hue.
- Capsicum chinense: is a red pepper from Amazon, includes the hottest peppers such as the naga, habanero, Datil and Scotch bonnet. The plant is small and has slow growth, when it forms, the fruit varies greatly in colour, red, orange, yellow, green even white and purple.
- Capsicum pubescens: is a native of South America, includes the South American Locoto, Manzano and Canario peppers. The plant can live up to 15 years with an almost tree-like appearance.
- Capsicum baccatum: has its origins in ancient Peru, particularly ncludes the South American aji peppers.
If you have exaggerated with the chilli, a nice glass of milk is the best remedy, nothing like milk can intensively wash the spiciness away.